In Linux commands, the basic commands that you should know

Here are some basics in Linux commands that you should know to start your journey with Linux without any trouble in 2021

in linux commands

To check whether your Linux distribution is 32bit or 64 bit

uname -m

To check whether the desired software is available on ubuntu

For git, use the below command

git --version

For Ubuntu, pthon3 will be the default so, use the below command

Python3 --version

Find the executable location of the software

For git executable location, use the below command

which git

For Python3 executable location, use the below command

which python3

Files and folders

Creates a file and allow you to edit it


Save and exit the opened file by short key Ctrl+D

Open the created file

cat filename.txt

Creates an empty file but you cannot edit it

touch filename.txt

Removes the created file

rm filename.txt

creates a folder

mkdir folder

removes the empty folder directory

rmdir folder

removes a folder directory

rm -rf folder 

long listing the existing folders

ls -l

Install and uninstall any application

Use the below command to install any software application

Sudo apt-get install application_name

Use the below command to uninstall any software application

Sudo apt-get remove application_name

Copy and paste in the terminal

Use the short key to copy

Shift+ctrl   c

Use the short key to paste

Shift+ctrl   v

Still confused! Don’t know what to do, how to start then let me guide you, check the video link provided below

The video resource provided below, I found, so far  the best resource for beginner to start a journey in Linux commands

However, the video doesn’t cover all the Linux commands that are existed there but covered the basic commands that are necessary for a beginner to take his first step in Linux commands.

click here for video

Still confused! You don’t know, what is a Linux? What is ubuntu and why we need Linux? But wait! do you know which linux distribution should you use? And what is a virtual box and how to download it?

Click here to know all the above information

I suggest you, to go through the link above mentioned to download Linux on your desktop and also fact that the Linux commands that are mentioned above are enough for beginner to feel good about Linux

Remember you won’t learn Linux in one day, you need to play with it and form your own questions and find answer’s for questions, that’s how you learn Linux

Another thing I like to suggest you not learn all command’s at first then start using it, it is better you learn some basic commands and play with it and form your questions and find answers, that’s how you learn quicker than from others

How to zip and unzip folders in Linux

The folder can be zipped by right click on that folder and select the compress option and to unzip the zipped file right-click on that folder and select extract here option

Why we use zip files

Because zip files compress data and save time and space and make downloading files and transferring e-mail attachments faster

How to use ssh in Linux

There are many ways by which you can connect a Linux machine to a remote machine for example you can use

  1. MobaXterm
  2. Putty

In case, if you have a window machine and you are using your Linux machine  through a virtual box then you need to follow the below steps to connect ssh

Step 1#: set network setting in virtual box

First, open the virtual box

Second, click setting and select the network option

Third: set the first adapter setting to NAT

Fourth: enable the second adaptor and set the setting to a bridged adapter

Fifth: press ok

Step 2#: install ssh on your Linux machine

First, connect to your localhost to check whether ssh is installed or not

ssh localhost

And in case, if you see an error something like this: connect to host localhost port 22: connection refused  then that means ssh is not installed in your machine

So, install ssh by below command

sudo apt-get install openssh-server

To check, whether you successfully installed the ssh

sudo service ssh status

Press to quit the mode

Step 3#: note down your IP address

First , install the net-tools to view the IP address of your machine

sudo apt-get install net-tools

To check the IP address use the below command


Your IP address will be inlet value which will be something similar to

Neglect the default ip addresses such as and

Step 4#: login to a remote machine

To connect the window machine with the remote  machine Linux, a tool called mobaXterm  is used

First, open the mobaXterm

Second: type the command  

ssh userid@ip_address

For user_name use the remote machine  user name(Linux user name ) and for, ip_address use the remote machine IP address(Linux machine IP address)

When MobaXterm ask for a password then enter the password of your remote  machine (Linux machine)

Some basic problems or errors you find in linux

First error: BUSYBOX  v1.30.1(ubuntu 1:1:30.1-4ubuntu6.0.) built in shell (ash)

The BUSYBOX  initrams error, usually you see this kind of error when you opening your ubuntu or whichever distribution you have  

Type the below command

(initramfs) exit

You will get something like this

 Fsck exited with status code 4 
The root filesystem on  /dev/sda5 requires a manual fsck

This means that your partition sda5 has a problem  so, to remove it use the below command

(initramfs) fsck /dev/sda5 -y

In this case, sda5 have a problem in your case it might be sda0,sda1,dsa2, etc

Finally, reboot the system

(initramfs) reboot

Mohammed Anees

Hey there, welcome to aneescraftsmanship I am Mohammed Anees an independent developer/blogger. I like to share and discuss the craft with others plus the things which I have learned because I believe that through discussion and sharing a new world opens up

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